Standards of Practice in Higher Education, Third Edition
STANDARD 1. Alignment with the Missions of Higher Education
1.1 Develop a strategic plan for health promotion that supports the unique missions and values of the institution of higher education.
1.2 Design health promotion initiatives that support student success as defined by the institution of higher education.
1.3 Disseminate research that demonstrates the effect of individual health behaviors and environmental health behaviors on student success.
Beauchamp DE. “Public Health as Social justice.” Inquiry.1976;13:3-14.
This article posits that fundamental attention in public health policy and prevention should not be directed toward a search for new technology, but rather toward breaking existing ethical and political barriers to minimizing death and disability.
McNeil, M and Helminiak, B. Linking Health Promotion with Student Academic Success. Handouts from presentations at the 2004 American College Health Association and American College Personnel Associations annual conferences.
Describes existing literature connecting health promotion with student academic success. Discusses the limitations of existing linkages between health promotion and student academic success. Discusses the implications for student affairs practice if the links between health promotion and student academic success continue to be under-documented.
McNeil, M and Helminiak, B. Linking Health Promotion with Student Academic Success.2004
This paper reviews the research that currently demonstrates any relations between health education and health promotion on college student academic success (with some other populations included) in an effort to better understand any relationships that may exist and discusses the implications for health promotion practice.
Nutbeam D. What would the Ottawa Charter look like if it were written today? Critical Public Health.2008;1469-3682.
This paper discusses the origins, describes changes, and suggests adaptations to the five strategies of the Ottawa Charter – build healthy public policy; create supportive environments for health; strengthen community actions; develop personal skills; and reorient health services – that now routinely provide the framework for consideration of any major public health challenge.
Smith BJ, Tang KC, Nutbeam D. WHO Health promotion glossary: New terms. Health Promotion International Advance Access.2006;1-6.
The WHO Health Promotion Glossary was written to facilitate the understanding, communication and cooperation among those engaged in health promotion at the local, regional, national and global levels. The terms defined here are: burden of disease; capacity building; evidence-based health promotion; global health; health impact assessment; needs assessment; self–efficacy; social marketing; sustainable health promotion strategies; and wellness.
Swinford P. Advancing the health of students: A rationale for college health programs. Journal of American College Health; 2002;50:309-312.
The work of college health has always been much more than that of a convenient medical service that treats only students. The best college health programs should integrate institutional mission, provide data-driven services, feature collaborative partnerships, provide prevention-focused services, design student-accessible and student-driven services, increase health literacy skills, integrate pre-paid assessed fees, and reward staff practices that result in increased student self-care and self-efficacy.
Bloom BS, Engelhart M D, Furst EJ, Hill WH, Krathwohl DR. Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals; Handbook I: Cognitive Domain New York, Longmans, Green;1956.
This seminal text provides framework intended to classify any curriculum objective in terms of its explicit or implicit intellectual skills and abilities. Curriculum objectives describe the intended outcomes of instruction—its goals. Despite their age, the taxonomies have provided a basis for test and curriculum development in the United States as well as throughout the world. Its six categories—Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation—were tested with sets of actual objectives to assure inclusiveness. Intended to be logically internally consistent, the underlying ordering dimensions were those of simple to complex and concrete to abstract. Because each category assumed mastery of the previous ones, the framework formed a cumulative hierarchy.
Gordon RS. An operational classification of disease prevention. Public Health Reports;107-109;1983.
Prevention is defined as measures adopted by or practiced on persons not currently feeling the effects of disease, intended to decrease the risk that that disease will afflict them in the future.
Gullotta, TP, Bloom M. The encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion. New York: Kluwere/Plenum;2003.
This Encyclopedia of Primary Prevention and Health Promotion covers over 100 topics within Public Health, with many subjects ranging from Early Childhood, Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood and Older Adulthood in their scope. Starting with a Foundation section covering definition of terms, history, theories, ethics and basic methods, the encyclopedia encompasses the subject matter from entries such as: prevention of abuse; sexuality; nutrition; depression; academic success; and violence.
Maki PL. Coming to terms with student outcomes assessment: Faculty and administrators’ journeys to integrating assessment in their work and institutional culture. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing Inc;2010.
This is no conventional book about assessment. It presents the unvarnished first-person accounts of fourteen faculty and administrators about how they grappled, and engaged, with assessment and how – despite misgivings and an often-contentious process – they were able to gain the collaboration of their peers as the benefits for student learning became evident. This is a book for skeptical faculty, for those who have been tasked to spearhead their institution’s call to create a culture of assessment; and, on campuses where assessment has been widely accepted and implemented, for those who now need to ensure this commitment will endure.
Modeste NN, Tamayose TS. Dictionary of Public Health Promotion and Education Terms and Concepts. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass;2004.
Written for public health professionals and students, this dictionary includes definitions for terms and concepts frequently used in public health education and promotion.
Nutbeam D. Health Promotion Glossary. Geneva: World Health Organization;1998.
The basic aim of the glossary is to facilitate communication between countries and within countries, and among the various agencies and individuals working in the field. It has been assembled to enable as wide an audience as possible to understand the basic ideas and concepts which are central to the development of health promotion strategies and practical action. By clarifying key terminology, this glossary is part of the deliberate approach to engage as wide a constituency as possible in actions to promote health and prevent disease.
Pascarella ET, Terenzini PT. How College Affects Students: A Third Decade of Research. San Francisco: John Willey & Sons, Inc;2005.
This is the long-awaited second volume of Pascarella and Terenzini’s 1991 award-winning review of the research on the impacts of college on students. The authors review their earlier findings and then synthesize what has been learned since 1990 about college’s influences on students’ learning. The book also discusses the implications of the findings for research, practice, and public policy. This authoritative and comprehensive analysis of the literature on college-impact is required reading for anyone interested in higher education practice, policy, and promise¾faculty, administrators, researchers, policy analysts, and decision-makers at every level.
Suskie L. Assessing Student Learning: A Common Sense Guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Imprint;2009.
The first edition of Assessing Student Learning has become the standard reference for college faculty and administrators who are charged with the task of assessing student learning within their institutions. The second edition of this landmark book offers the same practical guidance and is designed to meet ever-increasing demands for improvement and accountability. This edition includes expanded coverage of vital assessment topics such as promoting an assessment culture, characteristics of good assessment, audiences for assessment, organizing and coordinating assessment, assessing attitudes and values, setting benchmarks and standards, and using results to inform and improve teaching, learning, planning, and decision making.
Barry BW. Strategic Planning Workbook for Nonprofit Organizations. Amherst H. Wilder Foundation: Saint Paul, Minnesota;2001.
CAS Professional Standards for Higher Education 8th Edition.Washington D.C.: Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education;2010.
CAS Professional Standards for Higher Education contains standards and guidelines for functional areas that govern higher education institutional practice. Each functional area is introduced by a contextual statement. This guide also contains, “A Statement on Learning and Development Outcomes.” There are standards and guidelines for more than forty functional areas including: a) Counseling Services, b) Clinical Healthcare Services, c) Wellness and Health Promotion, d) Recreational Sports, and e) Assessment Services.
Grizzell J. Process and Trends for Achieving the Business and Mission of Institutions of Higher Education. Healthy People and Healthy Campus 2020; 2009.
This paper gives a brief description of the process used to develop national health objectives, which began in the mid-1980s. The evolution and historical overview of campus health objectives are described. The publication also addresses 30-year trends including attention to disease specific health care and behavioral objectives to an increase interest in behaviors and determinants of health. A third area of the publication focuses on the impact of achieving specific health objectives on student learning and the business and mission of institutions of higher education.
Stoller ED. Student Life: A brief glimpse of the past, present, and future of college and university student health services. Oregon State University; 2004.
The lives of students in American higher education have been influenced by a number of services and support systems. Whether consciously or unconsciously, most students have been affected by these services. This paper will focus on a particular support system, specifically, the student health service.
Swaner LE. Linking engaged learning, student mental health and well-being and civic development: A review of the literature. Washington, D.C.: AAC&U;2005. http://www.aacu.org/liberaleducation/le-wi07/documents/le-wi07_swaner.pdf
Current prevention literature recommends a shift from targeted interventions toward community-level approaches in addressing students’ mental health concerns. The Bringing Theory to Practice project asks whether and how engaged learning, an emergent wave of curricular reform, might both advance the holistic mission of higher education and constitute a strategy for addressing substance abuse and depression on campus. To this end, a review of the literature was conducted to examine theoretical and research bases for linking engaged learning, student mental health and well-being, and civic development.
The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Accessed March 28, 2011, from World Health Organization: http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/ottawa/en/index.html
The conference was primarily a response to growing expectations for a new public health movement around the world. Discussions focused on the needs in industrialized countries, but took into account similar concerns in all other regions. It built on the progress made through the Declaration on Primary Health Care Act at Alma-Ata, the World Health Organization’s Targets for Health for All document, and the recent debate at the World Health Assembly on inter-sectoral action for health.
STANDARD 2. Socioecological-Based Practice Effective practice of health promotion in higher education requires professionals to understand and apply a socioecological approach.
2.1 Review professional literature on socioecological planning models.
2.2 Examine and address campus and community health issues at all levels of the socioecological model — intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, community, and public policy.
2.3 Focus primarily on transforming the campus and community environments through population-level initiatives.
2.4 Build upon the inter-relationships and interdependencies among the members and systems of the campus and community.
2.5 Advocate for campus, local, state, and national policies that address campus and community health.
Clapp J D, Segars L, Voss R. A Conceptual Model of the Alcohol Environment of College Students. Human Behavior in the Social Environment.2002;73-90.
This paper presents an empirically based conceptual model of college alcohol use from an environmental perspective. Specifically, the paper discusses the underlying assumptions of environmental approaches to alcohol problems, presents a program model to guide ad evaluate interventions, discusses a conceptual model to organize the social environment related to alcohol use and problems, and provides a series of interventions and measurement approaches consistent with the conceptual model.
DeJong W, Langford LM. A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.2002;140-147.
This article outlines a typology of programs and policies for preventing and treating campus-based alcohol-related problems, reviews recent case studies showing the promise of campus-based environmental strategies and reports findings from a national survey of US colleges and universities about available resources for pursuing environmentally focused prevention.
Jackson R J The Impact of the Built Environment on Health: and Emerging Field.American Journal of Public Health;2003;1382-1384.
Public health has traditionally addressed the built environment to tackle health issues such as sanitation, lead paint, workplace safety, fire codes, and access for persons with disabilities. This publication addresses a growing realization that how we design the built environment may hold tremendous potential for addressing many of the nation’s greatest current public health concerns, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, injury, depression, violence, and social inequities.
McLeroy K , Bibeau D, Steckler A, Glanz K. An Ecological Perspective on Health Promotion Programs. Health Education Quarterly.1988;351-377.
This article proposes an ecological model for health promotion which focuses attention on both individual and social environmental factors as targets for health promotion interventions. It addresses the importance of interventions directed at changing interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy, factors that support and maintain unhealthy behaviors.
Berkowitz AD. From reactive to proactive prevention: Promoting an ecology of health on campus. In P.C. Rivers & E.R. Shore (Eds.), Substance abuse on campus: A handbook for college and university personnel (pp. 119-139). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press;1997.
Substance abuse is one of higher education’s worst problems not only in terms of financial but also human cost. Drawing upon current theory and research, this handbook arrives at practical solutions to these problems. While there are divergent models of research and practice in substance abuse which have led to competing models of intervention, treatment, and prevention, this book seeks to reconcile those differences. It allows the reader to understand substance abuse from theoretical/research perspectives and guides the reader from conceptualization to programming to intervention with the substance abusing student.
Brofenbrenner U. The Ecology of Human Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press;1979.
This book offers a new theoretical perspective for research in human development. The perspective is new in its conception of the developing person, of the environment, and especially of the evolving interaction between the two.Frank L, Engelke P, Schmid T. Health and Community Design: The Impact Of The Built Environment On Physical Activity. Chicago: Island Press;2003.This publication provides a comprehensive examination of how the built environment encourages or discourages physical activity, drawing together insights from a range of research on the relationships between urban form and public health. It provides important information about the factors that influence decisions about physical activity and modes of travel, and about how land use patterns can be changed to help overcome barriers to physical activity
Keeling R. (Ed.). Learning Reconsidered: A Campus-Wide Focus on the Student Experience. http://www.myacpa.org/pub/documents/learningreconsidered.pdf;2004.
Learning Reconsidered is an argument for the integrated use of all of higher education’s resources in the education and preparation of the whole student. It is also an introduction to new ways of understanding and supporting learning and development as intertwined, inseparable elements of the student experience. It advocates for transformative education – a holistic process of learning that places the student at the center of the learning experience.
Keeling, R. (Ed.). Learning Reconsidered 2: Implementing a Campus-Wide Focus on the Student Experience. http://www.myacpa.org/pub/documents/LearningReconsidered2.pdf;2006.
Learning Reconsidered 2 puts academic learning and student development processes together in a format that requires all the resources of the academy to function together in an integrated manner on behalf of students.
STANDARD 3. Collaborative Practice Effective practice of health promotion in higher education requires professionals to engage and collaborate with interdisciplinary partners.
3.1 Advocate for a shared vision of health as the responsibility of all campus and community members.
3.2 Seek and cultivate interdisciplinary campus and community partnerships that advance health promotion initiatives.
3.3 Identify and mobilize stakeholders for collective action to create health promoting environments.
3.4 Utilize campus and community resources that maximize the reach and effectiveness of health promotion initiatives.
Stockdale, S E, Tang L, Pudilo, E, Lucas-Wright, A, Chung, B, Horta, M, Masonsong Z, Jones F, Belin T, Sherbournce C, Wells K. Building Coalitions and Partnerships for Health Promotion. Sampling and Recruiting Community-Based Programs Using Community-Partnered Participation. Health Promotion Practice 2016; 2: 254–264.http://hpp.sagepub.com/content/17/2/254.full.pdf+html
This article presents a case study of a community-partnered, participatory research (CPPR) cluster-randomized, comparative effectiveness trial to examine implications for study validity and community relevance.
Bobo K, Kendall J, Max S. Organizing for Social Change: Midwest Academy Manual for Activists (3rd edition). Seven Locks Press: Santa AnA California, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Washington D.C.;2001.
Kaner S. with Lind L, Toldi C, Fisk S, Berger D. Facilitator’s Guide to Participatory Decision-Making. New Society Publishers: Gabriola Island, BC and Philadelphia, PA;2005.
La Piana D. The Nonprofit Strategy Revolution: Real-Time Strategic Planning in a Rapid Response World. Fieldstone Alliance; 2008.
Institute of Medicine. The Future of Public Health. Washington DC: National Academy Press;1988.
This book contains proposals for ensuring that public health service programs are efficient and effective enough to deal not only with the topics of today, but also with those of tomorrow. In addition, the authors make recommendations for core functions in public health assessment, policy development, and service assurances, and identify the level of government–federal, state, and local–at which these functions would best be handled.
Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. College Drinking – Changing the Cultuer. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges: http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/media/TaskForceReport.pdf; 2002.
This report, developed by the NIAAA-supported Task Force on College Drinking, discusses binge drinking among college students and its consequences for both drinkers and nondrinkers. The report outlines recommendations for colleges and universities, researchers, and NIAAA based on scientific evidence and calls for collaboration between academic institutions and researchers.
U.S. Department of Education.Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention on College Campuses. Department of Education: Washington DC;2008.
In response to growing awareness of and concern about alcohol and other drug problems, institutions of higher education are implementing policies and programs in an attempt to curb alcohol and other drug abuse and its associated negative consequences. Momentum is now building for comprehensive prevention approaches that combine traditional education programs with strategies aimed at changing the physical, social, legal, and economic environments on campuses and in surrounding communities. This publication outlines the facets of a comprehensive environmental approach to prevention.
STANDARD 4. Cultural Competency Effective practice of health promotion in higher education requires professionals to demonstrate cultural competency and inclusivity.
4.1 Acknowledge and understand the social, cultural, political, and economic disparities that influence health.
4.2 Design health promotion initiatives that are proactive, responsive, and sensitive to the needs and preferences of a diverse and changing population.
4.3 Design health promotion initiatives that are guided by values of cultural inclusion, respect, equality, and equity.
4.4 Create opportunities to further understanding of the connections between culture, identity, and social justice as determinants of health.
Airhihenbuwa CO, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, & Lowe A. HIV/AIDS education and prevention among African-Americans: A focus on culture. AIDS Education and Prevention.1992; 4: 267-276.
Epidemiologic evidence indicates that African-Americans adults as well as adolescents have a disproportionately higher risk of AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While programs designed to increase self-protective behaviors are urgently needed to avert a further increase in HIV infection among this population, there is little understanding of African-American sociocultural factors that may influence the acceptance of HIV information and the adoption of HIV-preventive behaviors. This paper describes African-American cultural values and mores which may be related to risk-taking behavior. Barriers to the effective dissemination of HIV prevention education are identified and strategies that may be effective in surmounting these barriers and implementing culturally-appropriate HIV behavioral modification programs are described.
Cohen L, Chavez V, Chehimi S. Prevention is Primary. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass;2007.
This publication provides models, methods, and approaches for building health and equity in communities. This publication is comprehensive and includes the theory, concepts, and models needed to harness social justice and practice primary prevention of unnecessary illness and injury in the first place.
American College Health Association. (2011). Cultural Competency Statement. http://www.acha.org/Publications/docs/ACHA_Cultural_Competency_Statement_Feb2011.pdf
Cultural competency refers to the capacity for an individual, an organization, or an institution to respond to the unique needs of populations whose cultures are different from that of those that might be considered “dominant.” This statement outlines individual level, institution level, and Association level commitments to cultural competency in the field.
Cultural competence in substance abuse treatment , policy, planning, and program development: An annotated bibliography. http://www.mocmhc.org/documents/Bibliography%20of%20Cultural%20Competence%20in%20Substance%20Abuse%20Treatment.pdf
The books, articles, and research studies in this bibliography provide background reading in cultural competency, and will discuss what constitutes culturally competent treatment, why it is an important component of counseling, and implications for program development, administration, and policy planning.
STANDARD 5. Theory-Based Practice Effective practice of health promotion in higher education requires professionals to understand and apply accepted theoretical frameworks and planning models that address individual and community health.
5.1 Review professional literature from interdisciplinary sources on theoretical frameworks and planning models.
5.2 Design and implement health promotion initiatives that are guided by accepted theoretical frameworks and planning models.
5.3 Evaluate whether theories are successfully realized in program activities and expected results are achieved.
Brown LK, DiClemente RJ, Reynolds LA. HIV prevention for adolescents: Utility of the health belief model. AIDS Education and Prevention;1991;3:50-59.
The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been applied to diverse sets of health behaviors. Research that suggests difficulties of the HBM in predicting future behaviors, especially HIV-related, is reviewed. Prominent features of adolescence that influence HIV-related risk behaviors are discussed including: cognitive immaturity, struggle for psychological autonomy, peer influences, and physical development. It is suggested that a model is needed to guide prevention efforts, and that these adolescent-specific factors need to be incorporated into any such model.
Catania JA, Kegeles SM, Coates TJ. Towards an understanding of risk behavior: An AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM). Health Education Quarterly, 1990;17:53-72.
This report presents a three-stage model (ARRM) that characterize people’s efforts to change sexual behaviors related to HIV transmission. ARRM focuses on social and psychological factors hypothesized to influence (1) labeling of high risk behaviors as problematic, (2) making a commitment to changing high risk behaviors, and (3) seeking and enacting solutions directed at reducing high risk activities. The proposed model integrates important concepts from prior behavioral medicine and human sexuality studies, specifies their differential import to achieving the goals associated with each stage of the model, and denotes factors hypothesized to influence people’s motivation to continue the change process over time. Cronin P, Ryan F, Coughlan M. Undertaking a Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Approach. Journal of British Nursing.2008;17.This article walks the reader through each step of conducting a literature review in preparation for a research study or program development.
Grier S, Bryant C. Social Marketing in Public Health. Anual Review Public Health;2005;319-339.
In the hopes of advancing current knowledge of social marketing technique, a practical definition and discussion the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing is provided in this publication. The purpose of this guide is to enhance public health professionals’ knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.
Janz NK, Becker MH. The health belief model: A decade later. Health Education Quarterly, 1984;11:1-47.
Since the last comprehensive review in 1974, the Health Belief Model (HBM) has continued to be the focus of considerable theoretical and research attention. This article presents a critical review of 29 HBM-related investigations published during the period of 1974-1984, tabulates the findings from 17 studies conducted prior to 1974, and provides a summary of the total 46 HBM studies (18 prospective, 28 retrospective). Twenty-four studies examined preventive-health behaviors (PHB), 19 explored sick-role behaviors (SRB), and three addressed clinic utilization. A “significance ratio” was constructed which divides the number of positive, statistically-significant findings for an HBM dimension by the total number of studies reporting significance levels for that dimension. Summary results provide substantial empirical support for the HBM, with findings from prospective studies at least as favorable as those obtained from retrospective research. “Perceived barriers” proved to be the most powerful of the HBM dimensions across the various study designs and behaviors. While both were important overall, “perceived susceptibility” was a stronger contributor to understanding PHB than SRB, while the reverse was true for “perceived benefits.” “Perceived severity” produced the lowest overall significance ratios; however, while only weakly associated with PHB, this dimension was strongly related to SRB. On the basis of the evidence compiled, it is recommended that consideration of HBM dimensions be a part of health education programming.
Laub C, Somera DM, Gowen LK, Diaz RM. Targeting “risky” gender ideologies: Constructing a community-driven, theory-based HIV prevention intervention for youth. Health Education and Behavior.1999;26:185-199.
Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, school-based HIV prevention education targeting youth has taken many forms. Although there has been some success, educators continue to be challenged by situations in which youth are knowledgeable about HIV but continue to engage in risky sexual behavior. In this article, the authors propose that the underlying or implicit theories about teenagers’ sexual risk behavior that guide most of these prevention activities are not accurate descriptions or valid explanations of sexual risk in this population.
Mahoney CA, Thombs DL, Ford OJ. Health belief and self-efficacy models: Their utility in explaining college student condom use. AIDS Education and Prevention.1995;7 32-49.
This investigation tested the ability of the Health Belief Model (HBM), dimensions of self-efficacy, various behavioral variables (i.e., number of sex partners in the past 12 months, frequency of drunkenness during sexual intercourse, and number of diagnosed sexually transmitted diseases), and demographic measures to distinguish between three condom user groups (i.e., nonusers, sporadic users, and consistent users).
Ramos D, PerkinsDF. Goodness of fit assessment of an alcohol intervention program and the underlying theories of change. Journal of American College Health;2006;55, 57-64.
The authors conducted an investigation of The Pennsylvania State University’s Alcohol Intervention Program Level 2 (AIP2) to determine goodness of fit of the program components and its underpinning theories. They determined that the Health Belief Model, Social Norms Theory, Social Learning Theory, and the Transtheoretical Model Stages of Change and Process of Change are associated with AIP2’s program elements.
Springer F, Phillips J L. The IOM Model: A Tool for Prevention Planning and Implementation. Prevention Tactics.2006;1-7.
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) continuum of care model is an important and underutilized tool. This publication explains the model and the potential for using it to identify population groups and individuals with differing prevention needs, and aligning these needs with appropriate policies, programs and practices.
Williams SS, Kimble DL, Covell NH, Weiss LH, Newton KJ, Fisher JD, Fisher WA. College students use implicit personality theory instead of safer sex. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.1992;22: 921-933.
Many college students engage in high levels of unsafe sexual behavior that puts them at risk for HIV infection. To better understand the dynamics underlying college students’ unsafe behavior, focus group discussions were conducted with 308 students (146 men and 162 women). The results showed that, instead of consistently using condoms, many college students use implicit personality theories to judge the riskiness of potential sexual partners. Specifically, partners whom college students know and like are not perceived to be risky, even if what students know about these individuals is irrelevant to HIV status. The students determine the riskiness of partners they do not know well based on superficial characteristics that are also generally unrelated to HIV status. Therefore, AIDS prevention interventions for college students must expose the ineffectiveness of the students’ use of implicit personality theories to determine potential partners’ riskiness, and the “know your partner” safer sex guideline should be abandoned.
Yep GA. HIV prevention among Asian-American college students: Does the health belief model work? Journal of American College Health.1993;41:199-205.
This study examined the predictive utility of the health belief model (HBM) in relation to prevention of HIV infection among Asian-American college students. Four research hypotheses were proposed. Three of these hypotheses proposed a positive relationship between perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits, and HIV-preventive behavior. The fourth research hypothesis postulated a negative relationship between perceived barriers to prevention and actual HIV-preventive behaviors. Results indicated that severity and barriers are significant predictors of the adoption of HIV-preventive behaviors among Asian-American students.
Bandura A. Social foundation of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall;1986.
This text presents a comprehensive theory of human motivation and action from a social-cognitive perspective. This insightful text addresses the prominent roles played by cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective processes in psychosocial functioning; emphasizes reciprocal causation through the interplay of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors; and systematically applies the basic principles of this theory to personal and social change.
Dimeff LA, Baer JS., Kivlahan DR, Marlatt GA. Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College students. New York: The Gulford Press;1999.
This instructional manual presents a pragmatic and clinically proven approach to the prevention and treatment of undergraduate student alcohol abuse. The BASICS model is a non- confrontational harm reduction approach that facilitates the reduction alcohol consumption and decreases the behavioral and health risks associated with heavy drinking. Fertman CI, Allensworth DD. Health Promotion Programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass;2010.This publication introduces the theory of health promotion and represents an overview of current best practices from a wide variety of settings that include schools, health care organizations, workplace, and community. The 43 contributors to Health promotion programs focus on students and professionals interested in planning, implementing, and evaluating programs that promote health equity.
Green LW, Kreuter MW. Health promotion planning: An educational and environmental approach. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield;1991.
This seminal text is written for the next generation of health promotion professionals who will plan programs that are based in theory and evidence to protect and promote the health of all. Readers can expect to understand and apply various models of assessment, evaluation, and theoretical approaches to various settings, including communities, occupational settings, educational settings, and health care settings.
Gullotta T, Bloom M. The encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion. New York: Kluwere/Plenum;2003.
This encyclopedia covers over 100 topics within public health, including subjects ranging from issues faced during early childhood through older adulthood. Starting with a foundational section covering definition of terms, history, theories, ethics and basic methods, the encyclopedia encompasses subject matter from entries such as: prevention of abuse; sexuality; nutrition; depression; academic success; and violence.
Pickett, G., Hanlon J J. Public Health: Administration and Practice. New York: Mosby;1994.
This publication is well-established as the standard text in public health management; this ninth edition is the most
up-to-date book available to health students and professionals. The text employs practical experience to substantiate and critique theory.
Rollnick S., Miller SR. Motivational Interviewing. New York: Guilford Publications;2002.
This publication explains how to work through individual ambivalence to facilitate change, presents detailed guidelines for using the selected approach, and reflect on the process of learning to use motivational interviewing as a technique. Chapters contributed by leading experts address such special topics as the stages-of-change model, applications in medical, public health, and criminal justice settings, and the use this approach with groups, couples, and adolescents.
Stufflebeam DL, Shinkfield AJ. Evaluation Theory, Models and Applications. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass;2007
This text is designed for evaluators and students who need to develop a commanding knowledge of the evaluation field: its history, theory and standards, models and approaches, procedures, and inclusion of personnel as well as program evaluation. This important book shows how to choose from a growing array of program evaluation approaches.
International Center for Alcohol Policies. Accessed March 30, 2011, from Social Norms Marketing: http://www.icap.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=gCryGhudhjc%3d&tabid=36
Social norms marketing is an environmental intervention that aims to modify societal norms through the correction of misperceptions, institutional and public policy measures.
Saltz, R. F., & DeJong, W. Reducing Alcohol Problems on Campus: A Guide to Planning and Evaluation. Accessed April 27, 2011, from College Drinking – Changing the Culture: http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/media/FINALHandbook.pdf
This publication is a brief guide on how the task force’s research can be used to plan prevention programs and to monitor a prevention intervention’s implementation and local impact.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. National Institutes of Health;2005.
This report describes influential theories of health-related behaviors, processes for shaping behavior, and the effects of community and environmental facts on behavior.
W.K. Kellogg Foundation. (1998). W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide.
Accessed April 8, 2013 from http://www.wkkf.org/knowledge-center/resources/2006/02/wk-kellogg-foundation-logic-model-development-guide.aspx
A practical,step-by-step manual for conducting evaluations, the Kellogg Foundation introduced the concept of the program logic model and the ways in which applying this concept has added value to our work.
STANDARD 6. Evidence-Informed Practice Effective practice of health promotion in higher education requires professionals to understand and use evidence to inform health promotion initiatives.
6.1 Review published research on health promotion initiatives with demonstrated efficacy.
6.2 Conduct population-based assessments of health status, needs, and assets.
6.3 Conduct environmental assessments of campus and community health needs and resources.
6.4 Develop measurable goals and objectives for health promotion initiatives.
6.5 Implement evidence-based health promotion initiatives with fidelity to maximize effectiveness.
6.6 Use accepted quantitative and qualitative methods for assessment and program evaluation.
6.7 Disseminate program evaluation results to campus and community stakeholders.
Carey KB, Scott-Sheldon LAJ, Carey M, DeMartini KS. Individual-level interventions to reduce college student drinking: A meta-analytic review. Addictive Behaviors;2007;32, 2469-2494.
The meta-analysis includes 62 studies, published between 1985 to early 2007, with 13,750 participants and 98 intervention conditions. Moderator analyses suggest that individual, face-to-face interventions using motivational interviewing and personalized normative feedback predict greater reductions in alcohol-related problems.
Croll N, Jurs E., Kennedy S. Total quality assurance and peer education. Journal of American College Health.1983;41: 247-249.
To promote program quality assurance, the Office of Health Promotion and Education at Penn State University evaluated peer health educators’ presentation skills. Professional staff and experienced peer educators used an instrument tested for inter-observer reliability to evaluate effectiveness in three skill areas: knowledge, delivery, and sensitivity. Each skill was rated, using a 4-point Likert-type scale. Knowledge included measures of preparation, subject knowledge, and ability to respond to questions knowledgeably; delivery included measures of clarity of directions, pacing, and transitions, appropriate and challenging questions, cooperation with co-facilitators, and enthusiasm; and sensitivity included comfort level, establishing trust in the group, non-judgmentalism, appropriate use of humor, and nonsexist/nonheterosexist language.
de Vries H, Weijts W, Dijkstra M, Kok G. The utilization of qualitative and quantitative data for health education program planning, implementation, evaluation: A spiral approach. Health Education Quarterly.1992;19: 101-115.
The process of development of a Dutch smoking prevention project is described. An essential feature of the project is the combination and interaction of qualitative and quantitative research methods. It is advocated that each method has its own contribution and can be considered as a separate methodology contributing to social science in general and health education research in particular. Combining the two approaches in a spiral approach will result in a synergistic effect, because of the interaction of both approaches.
Fabiano P. Peer-based HIV assessment: A step-by-step guide through the teachable moment. Journal of American College Health.1993;41:297-299.
Peer educators in HIV prevention have influence with other students beyond the narrowly defined traditional activities of workshop presentations or outreach projects. Training HIV prevention peer educators to be prepared for the “teachable moments” when other students seek their assistance on assessing risk for HIV infection is a necessary new emphasis in the training curriculum. HIV risk assessment can be approached as an educational intervention that requires interpersonal skills, but does not cross the invisible barrier into “counseling.”
Green J. The role of theory in evidence-based health promotion practice. Health Education Research.2000; 15:125-129.
This Editorial aims to re-focus attention on the role of theory in the context of evidence-based practice. It argues that empirical evidence alone is insufficient to direct practice, and that recourse to the explanatory and predictive capability of theory is essential to the design of both programs and evaluations.
Harris J.R. et al. A framework for disseminating evidence-based health promotion practice. Prevention of Chronic Disease.2012;9:110081.
Wider adoption of evidence-based, health promotion practices depends on developing and testing effective dissemination approaches. To assist in developing these approaches, the authors created a practical framework drawn from the literature on dissemination and our experiences disseminating evidence-based practices. The main elements of their framework are 1) a close partnership between researchers and a disseminating organization that takes ownership of the dissemination process and 2) use of social marketing principles to work closely with potential user organizations.
Larimer ME, Cronce JM. Identification, prevention, and treatment revisited: Individual-focused college drinking prevention strategies 1999-2006. Addictive Behaviors.2007;32:2439-2468.
McQueen DV. Strengthening the evidence base for health promotion. Health Promotion International.2001;16 261-268.
This paper describes the evidence debate from the many players currently attempting to define best practices in health promotion. Expert opinions on the purpose of collecting evidence range from those who view evidence as a western notion of little use in the developing world to those who choose to focus on opportunities to demonstrate the effectiveness of health promotion.
Nutbeam D.The Challenge to Provide ‘Evidence’ in Health Promotion. Heatlh Promotion International.1999;14:99-101.
This article seeks to operationalize the meaning of “evidence” for effective health promotion efforts. Several interpretations and rationales are provided, including the emphasis program justification based on research, the relationship between program implementation and achieving pre-determined outcomes, and the implication that these criteria have not always been paramount.
Bradburn NM, Sudman S, Wansink B. Asking Questions: The Definitive Guide to Questionnaire Design;2004.
This book is considered a classic guide for designing surveys and “describes the design process from start to finish and is filled with illustrative examples from actual surveys.”
Bresciani MJ, Wolff RA. Outcomes-based academic and co-curricular program review: A compilation of institutional good practices. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC;2006.
This book is intended for faculty, administrators and staff responsible for implementing and sustaining outcomes-based assessment program review. It aims to help them understand the “what”, “why” and “how” of outcomes-based assessment program review. Rather than adopting a prescriptive approach, it provides a rich array of case studies and ideas as a basis for reflection and discussion to help institutions develop solutions that are appropriate to their own missions and cultures. This book illustrates the components of outcomes-based assessment program review, presents the criteria for identifying good practices and suggests steps for implementing a sustainable outcomes-based assessment program–and does so in a way that will engage readers in critical inquiry about what works well and what needs to be improved.
Cottrell RR, McKenzie J F. Health promotion education research methods: Using the five-chapter thesis/dissertation model, (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA, Jones and Bartlett Publishers;2011.
A “must have book” for all those who work with graduate students or who are writing theses and dissertations. Cottrell and McKenzie provide a step-by-step guide to completion of research for theses, dissertations, or articles for possible publication.
Creswell JW. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (3rd ed);2009.
This book details how to develop a research question and various study designs that can be used in the research process.
Gilmore GD. Needs and capacity assessment strategies for health education and health promotion (4th Ed.). Sudbury, MA, Jones and Bartlett Publishers;2012.
This basic book also includes online access code to a companion website that can be used as a supplement to the basic text. Gilmore presents chapters related to the “nuts and bolts” of conducting needs assessments including single and multistep surveys, interviewing, group participation processes, capacity assessments, technology-supported assessments, large-scale community assessment strategies, self-directed assessments, case studies, and a needs assessment simulation game that can be used in classes.
Harris MJ. Evaluating public and community health programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass;2010.
This twelve chapter paperback includes discussions of the purpose of public and community health evaluation, doing community assessments; setting initiatives, goals, and objectives; planning and conducting evaluations; evaluation designs; data collection and analyses; interpretation of findings; and reporting findings. A case study that can be used in classes is also included.
Issel LM. Health program planning and evaluation: A practical, systematic approach for community health, (2nd Ed.). Sudbury, MA, Jones and Bartlett Publishers;2009.
In this seventeen chapter textbook, Issel provides those involved with planning and evaluating community-based health promotion programs. The principles that are included in the text can be appropriately applied to the college campus setting, including the development, implementation, and evaluation of campus/community partnership health education/health promotion programs.
Morgan DL, KruegerRA. The Focus Group Kit, Volumes 1-6;1997.
This kit is a one-stop shop for everything you need to know about planning, facilitating, and analyzing focus groups. Collectively, the books go through the entire focus group process, or you can select just one that (to learn about a topic) The volumes are: 1) The Focus Group Guidebook’ 2) Planning Focus Groups ; 3) Developing Questions for Focus Groups; 4) Moderating Focus Groups; 5) Involving Community Groups in Focus Groups; 6) Analyzing and Reporting Focus Group Results.
Stevens D D, Levi AJ, Walvoord BE. Introduction to Rubrics: An Assessment Tool to Save Grading Time, Convey Effective Feedback, and Promote Student Learning (2nd ed.). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC;2012.
This new edition retains the appeal, clarity and practicality that made the first so successful, and continues to provide a fundamental introduction to the principles and purposes of rubrics, with guidance on how to construct them, use them to align course content to learning outcomes, and apply them in a wide variety of courses, and to all forms of assignment. Reflecting developments since publication of the first edition, the authors have extended coverage to include: expanded discussion on use of rubrics for grading; grading on-line with rubrics; wider coverage of rubric types (e.g., holistic, rating scales); rubric construction in student affairs; pros and cons of working with “ready-made” rubrics; using rubrics to improve your teaching; use of rubrics in program assessment (case study); application of rubrics in the arts, for study abroad, service learning and students’ independent learning; and up-dated literature review.
Wholey JS, Hattry HP, Newcomer KE. Handbook of Program Evaluation (3rd ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass;2010.
This text written by three very highly regarded evaluators contains evaluating planning and design, practical data collection procedures, data analysis, and use of program evaluation.
Green LW, Fielding J. The U.S. Healthy People Initiative: Its Genesis and its Sustainability. Annual Reviews;2011.
This publication reviews the background and history of the development of a national effort toward health promotion. Previous to this initiative quantified objectives at the center of government health initiatives were a product of continuous balancing of changing science and political or social concerns and priorities along with national and state or special population needs. The evolution from the first decade’s objectives to each subsequent set of objectives reflected changing societal concerns, evidence-based technologies, theories, and discourses of those decades.
National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. What colleges need to know now: An update on college drinking research. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services;2007.
The central report, A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges, has proven influential in the college alcohol and other drug prevention and treatment field. Statistics first introduced in the report are now routinely used to convey the magnitude of college drinking problems and their consequences.
Outside the Classroom. Outside the Classroom. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from The Alcohol Prevention Compass: Using Alcohol Free Options to Promote a Healthy Campus Environment: http://www.outsidetheclassroom.com/Upload/PDF/AlcoholFreeOptions.pdf ;2008.
The goal of this report is to communicate our findings on the impact of alcohol-free options and to strengthen campus prevention efforts by disseminating best practices for planning and implementing these activities.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. HHS announces the nation’s new health promotion and disease prevention agenda. US Department of Health and Human Services;2010.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services today unveiled Healthy People 2020, the nation’s new 10-year goals and objectives for health promotion and disease prevention, and “myHealthyPeople,” a new challenge for technology application developers.
What Works Clearinghouse Reporting Guide for Study Authors. Accessed on April 9, 2013 from
This document provides guidance about how to describe studies and report their findings in a way that is clear, complete, and transparent.
STANDARD 7. Continuing Professional Development and Service Effective practice of health promotion in higher education requires professionals to engage in on-going professional development and service to the field.
7.1 Apply ethical principles to the practice of health promotion.
7.2 Participate regularly in professional development.
7.3 Assist others in developing required competencies for effective health promotion practice.
7.4 Contribute professionally to the field.
Allen N. A case study of a successful health advocate program. Journal of American College Health.1993;41:293-295.
This case study describes the health advocate program of Olin Health Center at Michigan State University. The health advocates are the peer branch of the university’s health education/public health service. Since initiation of the program in January 1986, more than 125 students have participated in the training and service, for which they receive academic credit. This case study describes the background, development, and evaluation strategies of the health advocate program and offers recommendations to those who are interested in developing a similar program.
Shankman ML, Allen SJ. Emotionally Intelligent Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass;2008.
This publication combines the concepts of emotional intelligence and leadership in a single model of emotionally intelligent leadership (EIL). This important resource offers students a practical guide for developing their EIL capacity and emphasizes leadership as a learnable skill that is based on developing healthy and effective relationships.
National Institutes of Health Peer Review Process Revealed. Accessed on April 8, 2013 from http://public.csr.nih.gov/Pages/default.aspx
This tool provides applicant resources for those looking to submit grants.